Client Alerts

02 / 02 / 2014

Protection of Geographical Indications (GIs) in Turkey

a) Regulatory Framework

GIs in Turkey are regulated mainly by the following legislations in the order of supremacy; 1) The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement 1994) and; 2) The Turkish Decree Law No. 555 on the Protection of Geographical Indications (“Decree Law No. 555”) 3) The Regulation Concerning the Implementation of the Decree Law No. 555 , Published in the Official Journal (Resmi Gazete) No:22454 on 5 November 1995. Read More

02 / 02 / 2014

Company Establishment and Corporate Taxation in Turkey

The types of business organisations most commonly used for establishment of foreign presence in Turkey are Joint Stock Company (“JSC”) and Limited Liability Company (“LLC”) . The information given in this Bulletin consists of a comparison of JSC and LLC, and finally, general information on company establishment procedure.

I. General Information regarding the foreign investments

Foreign capital is brought into Turkey freely under the Foreign Direct Investments Law (the “Act”) , unless the provisions of international agreements and other laws related with such investments foresee any restrictions with this respect. According to the Act, any foreign investor intending an establishment of a company inTurkeyis not differ from a Turkish citizen or a legal entity, at least, in the measures of the required capital contribution. The capital contribution of the foreign investors is subject to the Turkish Commercial Code (“TCC”) as the Turkish Investors.

According to the new Commercial Code, the minimum capital for the establishment of a JSC created by contract is 50.000 (approximately € 17.000). It is 100.000 TL for a JSC whose shares are not publicly traded but which has adopted the registered capital system. The minimum capital for an LLC is 10.000 TL (approximately € 3.500). Read More

01 / 02 / 2014

An Emerging Biohazard in Food Safety: Antibiotic/Anti-microbial Resistance (AMR)

In the recent years, understanding the dissemination ways of resistant bacteria and genes coding for resistance and their detection have shifted the emphasis toward public health related issues. This phenomenon was firstly described on 1940 shortly after antibiotic that has ended numerous infectious diseases was discovered. At the present time, it is considered as a biohazard.

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